In 410 AD, with the last remaining Roman legions being called to defend the mainland against Germanic invaders, Emperor Honorius advised the people of Britain to “look to their own defenses”, a statement which effectively ended the island’s connection to the Roman empire. In the power vacuum that ensued, Britain was left divided and in shambles, ill-equipped to defend themselves against the encroaching Anglo-Saxon invaders. Faced with threats on all fronts, and with no help in sight, the Britons were locked in a desperate fight for their survival.
When did Christmas originate? How did the pagans and Romans celebrate it? What were festive celebrations like in the Middle Ages? And what was a “first footer”? These questions and more answered in the latest episode of Medieval! this year!
Vikings. Or Northmen, Pagans, Foreigners, Rus. These and many names were given to the people who came to be one of the greatest nuisances to Europe after the Barbaric invasion and the great crisis that ended the Roman Empire. They were so feared that the Church even declared that the apocalypse was near and the Vikings were, in fact, the soldiers of the antichrist.
Norsemen came from the Danish and Scandinavian peninsula, as well as other Northern regions, and they were fierce and efficient warriors, well equipped and well trained. They specialized in the art of raiding. They were so incredibly adept to this tactic and their name, “Vikings”, was probably derived from this.
It was one of the greatest deeds in the history of the Roman Empire – the glorious but brief restoration of the Western Roman provinces, the capture of Rome, and the series of month-long sieges in order to take back major Italian cities. From 535 to 554 AD, the Byzantines and Ostrogoths fought furiously over the peninsula. By the last year of the war, the Byzantines are able to conquer the majority of Italy, but their territorial holdings will soon come under attack by the cruel Langobards later in the century.
Of the many religions prominent in the Middle Ages, just one came to both threaten Christianity on a massive scale and bestow remarkable technological and cultural advances upon Europe. It was Islam, the faith of the Middle East, the driving religion behind one of the most mighty communities in all of history, and the one rival which Christianity just could not overcome. From the 7th century onwards, it would come to triumph over the deserts, cities and rivers of North Africa and Asia Minor.
Christianity came to be the most dominant religious force in medieval Europe within just a few centuries. Fraught by conflict, resolution, conversion and massive growth, the early history of Christianity is as fascinating as any other religion. Today I’m joined by Sir Paolo Ostava, a knight of the Templar Order, who studies apologetics and theology, to talk about the undulating past of the world’s most popular religion.
Taking the typical form of William the Conqueror’s fortifications, Arundel Castle was a motte-and-bailey defence built out of earth and timber. The motte would become the base of the castle’s keep. Measuring over 30 meters high, its size could be used not only to guard the river, but to intimidate the residents of Arundel into behaving.
NASA’s Project Gemini, which launched twelve spacecraft into Earth’s orbit between April 1964 and November 1966, was an intermediate step in the Apollo program’s ultimate goal of achieving a moon landing. The information and experience gained from the Gemini missions was vital for the success of future Apollo missions.
The Franks were fierce, intelligent and skilled in warfare. In this episode, find out how the Kingdom of the Franks expanded throughout France under their leader, King Clovis, and how he established the foundations for the greatest Christian kingdom in Western Europe.
Fifteen days into the month of March, 493 AD, the Germanic Odoacer lies dead on the floor of Ravenna’s banquet hall, struck on the head by the sword of Theodoric himself. This time, there were no hired assassins involved. It was a personal murder, and an unexpected one, brought about by cruel treachery and hunger for power.
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At the start of this episode, Odoacer becomes the first King of Italy and takes multiple steps to secure his new rule. But it’s all for nothing, because in less than two decades, he is attacked, tricked and killed to make way for Theodoric’s Ostrogothic Kingdom.
Dedicated to Carissa Zeleski. Thanks for supporting Medieval!
Emmanuel Macron, the French President, has described the fire in the 850-year-old Notre Dame Cathedral as “a terrible tragedy”.
At about 6.45 this Monday, a blaze broke out in the roof of Paris’ beloved Notre Dame Cathedral, which is, according to Macron, “the very centre of our lives”. Five minutes later, the first reports of a fire emerged, as flames were spotted near its two bell towers.
Adolf Hitler’s rearmament program began when he brought the National Socialist German Workers’ Party into power in 1933. This policy was immediately noticed by the Allied powers, but they did little to enforce the Treaty of Versailles and allowed Hitler to expand the German Army beyond the 100,000 combatants that were permitted in 1919. Notably, the Wehrmacht was founded in 1935 – the dawn of the Nazi forces. Production of war resources and military weapons/gear continued.
The Battle of Teutoburg Forest in 9 AD was one of the worst military defeats of Roman times and had a long-lasting and far-reaching influence on the fledging Empire. Today, it is often called “the beginning of German history” and is recognised as one of the most glorious examples of German unification.
The Russian T-34 Medium Tank and its variants were certainly the most produced tanks during the Second World War, but the debate still remains over whether it was the most effective. It was easy to maintain, fast and heavily-armoured, and severely shocked the Germans when it first arrived on the front line.
Recent excavations in the Westphalia-Lippe region of Central Germany have revealed shocking discoveries, attesting to an atrocious mass-killing of Polish and Russian forced-labourers, “one of the biggest crimes in the final stages of the war in Germany“.
One might arguethat the seemingly ugly, flawed and difficult-to-control M3 and its variants deserved a better treatment from its adversaries.After all, it was neither designed to be superior to the Sherman norbuilt to any degree of perfection, and was merely planned as an urgent combination of heavy armour and mobilitywith a minimal production time in mind. On the brink of war, most Allied nations were in dire need of new, reliable tanks in large numbers and the M3 brought just that. Despite its numerousissues, the M3 series was surprisingly sturdy in battle and could be depended on when necessary.
Despite existing for a seemingly-interminable four decades since its birth, the AH-64 Apache remains the flagship helicopter of the United States military and continues in active service in Egypt, Japan, the UK, Saudi Arabia and countless more countries around the globe. Designed both to support ground operations and launch intensive attacks in the air itself, the Apache series is crucial for Boeing’s supply and logistical contract with America and AH-64s are the favored combat chopper of choice. Many countries around the world use Apache variants as their main form of aerial attack aircraft.
The British Army, to state one example, are provided with the AugustaWestland Apache – a unique, modified version of the AH-64D Longbow which features two T700-GE-701C engines, allowing it to reach speeds of up to 180mph. Additionally, British Apaches have been powered by Rolls-Royce Turbomeca engines – still recommendable alternatives.
In 1967, the Lockheed AH-56 Cheyenne, prototyped and designed in response to the threat of heavily-armed Soviet vehicles in Europe, was test-flown. The Cheyenne was a powerful and worthy helicopter, but it still couldn’t meet the needs of the army. Ultimately, it was abandoned in favor of something quicker and more agile and sleek. This would allow them considerably more conflict and logistical flexibility, which was extremely important for their missions in the late 20th century. The United States Army wanted an “Advanced Attack Helicopter” – a chopper to carry the same, primary role as a Tactical Attack Aircraft – which would prove to be rigorous in tough, intensive combat situations and support ground operations by simultaneously utilizing advanced tracking and pilot-sighting systems.
Hence, America initiated their AAH program in 1972 by calling for proposals to suggest a new helicopter model; this request received great interest from numerous notable manufacturers, including Bell, Lockheed and Hughes. One design, the Model 77 (YAH-64A), submitted by Hughes Helicopters, made its first flight on the 30th of September 1975. Overwhelmed by a considerably large number of responses to their initial demand, the USA was unable to provide a response until the next year; this coincided with the death of Howard Hughes – the founder of Hughes Helicopters – in 1976, who left no will. Understandably, the company was sent into a bitter dispute over who should take over leadership of planning and manufacturing. Despite this, Hughes was chosen as the winner for the AAH design contest as the army preferred the YAH-64A instead of its Bell counterpart, mainly because of the advantages of the YAH-64’s landing gear arrangement over the Bell organization.
A development contract was formed in 1976 and the AmericanArmy finally approved all plans in 1982. The plains of Mesa, Arizona have oftenbeen considered an excellent place to produce and test helicopters. Thus, thefirst Army AH-64 rolled out of Hughes’ facility and made a flight in 1983,being named “Apache”. Military helicopters in the USA were frequently given thenames of Native American tribes because Indians had served honorably in thearmy during American history. Securing a $470 million deal with McDonnellDouglas in 1984, the AH-64 Apache was brought into full-scale development andbecame a primary feature of the production line. McDonnell Douglas were in turnbought out by Boeing, who laid claim to the Apache series and remain the mainmanufacture of AH-64s today.
Powered by theT700 twin turbo-shaft engine – supplied by the General Electric and Pratt &Whitney partnership – Apache variations were able to output up to (and over)2,000 shaft horsepower, with the T6A Model accelerating to a staggering 2,768SHP. T700 turbo-shafts were able to continue operating in extremely intense andstressful situations, making it a revered and ideal solution for a combatengine. After being delivered to at least fifty nations, the T700 has poweredaeroplanes and helicopters for 40 years. Most notably, it supplies a modifiedBlack Hawk UH-60 known as the “Firehawk” with its admired and awe-strikingspeed. Despite the immense speed of the AH-64, it is still highly agile and canmake beautiful, quick and sloping turns to conduct a follow up strike of itstarget. Not only this, but its navigational systems allow it to find theoperation location with complete ease and return to base, hassle-free.
Weighing between 400 and 500 pounds, the AH-64 Apache has a tandem cockpit for two; the copilot gunner being situated at the front with the pilot controlling the aircraft from the rear. Due to the limited crew-size, the loss of one chopper does not matter as much in terms of casualty/death rate as a larger, highly-manned craft. It also sports a set of excellent laser-targeting and night-vision systems mounted on the nose of the helicopter. These sensors and equipment allow the AH-64 Apache to continue operating at both night and day and it can withstand countless weather situations. Highly armored and easily maneuverable, the USA’s “most loved chopper” can fight through heavy enemy fire striking critical points on its body and return shots using a 30mm M230 chain gun hung beneath the fuselage, between the landing gears. Additionally, the AH-64D can carry approximately 22,000 pounds at maximum-load. All these upgrades and functionality features make the AH-64 and its counterparts extremely dangerous and effective weapons – one of the reasons they are loved so much. Although other helicopter models may be chosen over the Hughes’ design for certain circumstances and operations, the Apache is the ultimate multi-purpose (helicopter) aircraft, which is able to efficiently track and take out targets. ultimate multi-purpose (helicopter) aircraft, which is able to efficiently track and take out targets.
During Desert Storm – the primary operation of the Gulf War – the Apache was used as the main constituent for the air attack force body, with the purpose of shattering enemy radar positions, tanks and armored posts. Boeing remains in a position of contract with the United States and continues to deliver Apaches to armies across the globe. Until a manufacturer designs a new helicopter or weapon to one-up the AH-64, the Apache series will remain the most formidable, tactical air helicopter in the world and will forever be loved by aircraft enthusiasts, mechanists and engineers.
It seems apparent that the Ancient Greeks were very fond of the number twelve. Upon multiple occassions, primarily during myths and religious tales, the number twelve has been used in relation to gods, animals, etc. The Twelve Olympians were the most important deities of Greek religion and owned their name because they lived – supposedly – at the summit of Mount Olympus. As the greatest gods and godesses of the Greek Pantheon – religious circle – they were the ancestors of all other immortals and the overseers of humans.
As god of the sun, music, health, knowledge, agriculture and much more, Apollo was an ideal mix of the perfect Ancient Greek morals, intellect and physical appearance. He appears with the same name in both Greek and Roman religion.
Tarentum, recognised as the strongest capital of Magna Graecia in the South, was founded by Palanthus of Sparta in 706 BC. Featuring an excellent harbour, it was a huge commercial centre and connected Rome and Etruria to Greece.
Said to have been built on the East side of the River Tigris by King Vardanes (or Vardanus), Ctesiphon served as the administrative capital of both the Parthian and Sassanid Empires and attracted scientists, architects and writers from all over the Middle Eastern world. It was located twenty miles south of the location where Baghdad would be founded by Muslims in the 7th century.
The port city of Ostia, built at the mouth of the River Tiber, was home to between forty and sixty thousand residents during its peak. Attracting merchants, traders, farmers, patricians and builders, Rome’s central naval base proved significant in its overseas operations and enabled it to conduct widespread trade between its many provinces, notably during the Republican period.
On Saturday the 14th of October, 1066, Harold Godwinson assembled his foot soldiers upon a ridge at Senlac Hill, not far from the village of Hastings. His men had marched South rapidly following the successful Battle of Stamford Bridge, and were now preparing to face William the “Bastard”, Duke of Normandy, who had invaded the coast of England.
It’s my birthday today, and I realised it would be a great time to write another episode of “Reviewing History Products”. Shoutout to James at History Gear for sending these amazing products to The Augustus to review!
The archaeological find you see above is called an “aureus” and is one of the most valuable and high-quality coins that were issued, minting and distributed during the late Roman Republic and Empire, up until the about the 4th century.
For five hundred years, Baghdad, the modern-day capital of Iraq, shone as the gem in the Muslim world. Founded during the Golden Age of Islam, Baghdad quickly expanded, becoming a sprawling metropolis of houses, markets, hospitals and schools.
In July, 1588, Philip II of Spain sent out an enormous fleet of 130 ships organised into a crescent formation. They were to head for England to launch an invasion against the Protestant Queen, but would Philip really have achieved his ambitions… or was it doomed to fail all along?
From 1803 to 1815, Napoleon Bonaparte, known also as “Little Boney” conducted his Imperial wars in Europe, hugely expanding French territory and humiliatingly defeating his enemies. Two hundred years later, we still remember him as a rampaging little kid, who couldn’t back down after being exiled to the island of Elba.
Maces, or as they were otherwise known, bludgeons, became extremely popular in the Middle Ages in Eastern Europe, where the poorer soldiers could arm themselves cheaply with an easy-to-produce weapon with deadly potential.
One of the best known stories of the Macedonian King Alexander’s reign, is the tale of the striking of the Gordian knot, a tightly twisted and bound bundle of rope connected to a wagon. Not only is it a nice story, it is also a possibly example of Alexander’s mentality and attitude towards solving problems, which plays largely into his Persian invasion.
With no defeats in his campaign, Alexander was prepared to turn his army and march to Babylon, where he hoped he could take over the city and be crowned King of the Persian Empire. But before he could do so, Darius III sent a letter asking for his wife and children to be given back. Additionally, he attempted to form a treaty with the Macedonian king, allowing him to control half of the Persian lands whilst Darius controlled the other half. Unfortunately for the Persians, Alexander did not want shared leadership. He wanted it all, and absolutely all of it.
It was necessary that Alexander and his army eliminate all Persian naval threats in the Aegean and Levant before continuing inland on their campaign. If the Persian leaders realised that Greece was only defended by 13,000 men, there would be a large risk of invasion. Tyre, on the Levantine coast, was expertly defended, well garrisoned and almost impregnable. Additionally, it was a crucial trading port of the Mediterranean and controlled access to India, Carthage, Rome and other great nations across the sea. Alexander, of course, did not want to lead his army into this military headache, but the capture of Tyre was paramount and necessary to the continuation of the invasion.
“On Ancient Warfare”, in my opinion, should be used as a general reference book on the topics of fighting in antiquity, rather than a cover-to-cover read. Thank you to Pen and Sword who sent these books out to review. This is the third episode of Reviewing History Products.
Maybe I should be doing these chapter summaries more frequently so we can get into the more interesting chapters of Livy, but I want to keep the balance right. In this section, we see Amulius killed and Numitor placed rightfully back on the throne.
With Memnon of Rhodes’ forces destroyed at the first major battle of the Persian invasion by the Macedonians, Alexander led his blood-thirsty army – which had little need for any recovery time – along Anatolia’s Aegean Coast, bribing, frightening and besieging the ports into submission. Consequently, he had diminished Persian naval dominance around the Greek homelands, but had not gained full control of the Eastern Mediterranean.
After crossing the Hellespont from homeland Greece to Asia Minor – the Western half of the mighty Persian Empire – with an army of approximately forty-thousand men, Alexander gathered his men and headed for the Aegean coast and Persian naval bases. It was extremely important that he captured or took out these coastal cities otherwise he ran the risk of the Persians attacking Greece by sea whilst he was on campaign.
Upon inheriting his father, Philip II’s, armies, Alexander aided the unification of the petty Greek states that had for so long warred against each other to fight a common enemy – Persia – and led his men, as a general, into an invasion of Asia. Not only was Alexander titled “great” by modern historians, but by the writers of Ancient Times, such as Arrian, Curtis and Diodorius. Born in 356 BC, Pella, Greece, “Alexander, being then about twenty years of age, marched into Peloponnesus, as soon as he had secured the regal power”.
1. Did the Romans really control a quarter of the world?
No, they didn’t. They conquered the majority of Europe, a slice along the North of Africa and mostly dominated the east. This map shows the extent of the Roman Empire in the year 117AD, at around the height of its landmass and power. It is true that at one point a quarter of living humanity were Romans, but they had not conquered a quarter of the world.
The sheer fighting skill and discipline of the Templars depended on complete obedience to instructions, and it was the duty of any of these Knights to carry out the commander’s orders to the best of his ability. No matter the circumstance, the Templars would always have to act like fighting machines that would follow blunt commands.
For centuries, humans had believed that there would be a way to move quicker and more easily without the use of animals such as horses or donkeys. They knew that mechanics and scientific innovation would lead to the invention of a carriage which was powered by nature and working parts rather than biological life. But it was not until the Late Medieval era that educated individuals began to look more closely at how this dream could be achieved. Leonardo da Vinci was one of these creators, and was possibly the first to design and draw up plans for vehicles such as flying machines and tanks. Despite the sophisticated and potentially viable ideas da Vinci came up with, according to modern research, most of them would not work if they were actually attempted. It was a nice try, however.
In the fifth chapter of Livy’s work, we see Romulus escape capture, Remus taken for punishment to the King, and the assassination of the treacherous usurper Amulius. Here is my brief summary of chapter 5 of the first books – enjoy 🙂
Romulus and Remus were celebrating the festival of Lupercalia – founded by Evander, an Arcadian who had previously occupied the area – on the Palatine hill
Remember the brothers were fighting and stealing? Well, the brigands came to take revenge and managed to capture Remus. Romulus is not caught.
Remus had been raiding his grandfather, Numitor’s lands, and had not realised who he was attacking as he had never grown to know his exiled grandfather.
Fastaulus, the farmer that had found the boys with the wolf and cared for them through their childhood, knew that the boys were of royal blood
So Fastaulus told Romulus that he was descended from royalty
At about the same time, Numitor realised that the one boy he had in custody and his brother (Romulus) were his long-lost grandsons
Rom and Reme didn’t stand a chance in a pitched battle against Amulius, so they grouped their soldiers…
…and built a trap…
I hope this helped you! Oh, and Merry Christmas. Not sure why I am doing this on Christmas Day, but oh well.
In the oldest, darkest of Ancient Times, there existed a period of great celebration stretching from around late December to the first days of January, known to the pagans and druids of the cold and icy North.
We’ve seen it all, in movies, books, exaggerated but unhistoric illustrations and oftentimes our imaginations. But the question is, did swordsmen ever really pull a sword from a back scabbard, and how practical would it have been to carry your weapon out of your view – and potentially out of your reach?
The 13 unlucky ways you could be put to death for your crimes in the Dark Ages. These include medieval ways of public and private execution, and certainly some of the most painful and brutal methods in history.
Studying? Working on a project? Or are you a blogger like me researching for your next post? Using the correct research techniques is the best way to save yourself time and effort when studying. Here are my favourite ten tips for tripling the efficiency of your learning and finding what you need to know quicker. Hope you enjoy the post…
The food of Ancient Rome is often called the “most rounded and balanced diet of the ancient world”. And if you know the variety of different meats, vegetables and cheeses they ate, it’s not hard to see why. Although it is debatable whether they were better fed than their surrounding Mediterranean neighbours, we can be certain that if you had money, you had food – and talented chefs that could cook it.
During the Imperial Period, the Romans constructed hundreds of thousands of miles of paved and unpaved roads to connect provinces, towns and ports and enable widespread military mobilization within and outside the Empire’s borders.
The longbow, a devastatingly powerful long range weapon, was highly popular with English armies in the Middle Ages, although it was the Welsh who designed such a practical and deadly device. English Kings brought it into common use following defeated attacks on Wales.
Following his ascending to the throne in 1413, Henry V planned to assert his dominance over the French and possibly take the throne. As they had been engaging in smaller scales skirmishes on the English coast as well as supporting their enemies – including Scotland – Henry decided to transport his army of around 12,000 men from Southampton to Normandy (Northern France).
Hello, second episode of “Reviewing History Products”! It is thanks to my kind donor, James at History Gear, that I am able to continue doing these; he has sent me a package of different things to inspect and write upon. I’ve had a look at what has arrived, and it’s fair to say that I’m pleased!
This is the very first post in my new series, “Reviewing History Products”. I am really grateful to Pen and Swords Publishing who kindly sent me a set of books to review and it is because of their generous donation that I have decided to make this into a series. As of yet, I’ve been in touch with a couple more companies, so expect to see more!
Archaeologists excavating around Stockholm in Sweden stumbled upon a treasure trove of various military equipment, including “hundreds” of cannonballs dating back to the great age of Newton, Elizabeth I and Bach.
What do we have to look forward to this December? Here I’ve compiled a list of posts which I’ve either planned to start or have already begun researching. I hope you find something that you are interested in!
Welcome, Knight Errant! I see you want to be talked through the steps in the process of forging your own medieval sword! We won’t be making no flimsy wooden swords here – grab your swordsmith and we can get to work blacksmithing a new weapon!
In an attempt to intimidate enemy Germanic tribes and gain support and admiration from the Senate back in Rome, Caesar constructed a genius wooden bridge to the cross the Rhine, the greatest border between the Romans and Germans.
At nearly eight on the calm Sunday morning of 7thDecember 1941, the first of over three hundred Japanese bombers approached the US Pacific Naval Base in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. Within long, the surrounding area was dive-bombed, strafed and ships destroyed as part of a surprise aircraft and submarine attack. The cause of this ambush culminated fromrising tensions between the USA and Japan, and the event shocked American citizens. It would lead to them joining World War II the next day.
Doubtless we all know the Romans – the huge Empire, magnificent buildings and incredible works of literature. But it is often hard to discern how much of Ancient Roman civilisation has been carried on into modern day life, and whether they’ve benefitted us in any great way.
… and much more in the rise of this glorious Empire. This is The Augustus, and today we’ll be talking about the industrialisation of a small Latin community into an thriving urban superpower, and what it was like to live in the “city of marble”.
Here are some of my most interesting pictures from the many historical places I have visited. I hope you enjoy them. I’m slowly expanding my territories of exploration 😂 so you’ll probably see more from me as time goes on…. can you identify some of these places??
Titus Livius’ incredible work, The History of Rome, details everything from the inhabitation of Italy by Trojans until the rise of Augustus as the first Emperor. I’ve only just started reading this mammoth work – and here is a quick summary of the first chapter of the first book which I’ve already finished:
I’ve decided that seen as I’m relentlessly writing blog posts on my own website, I may as well use my enjoyment of researching and writing about all aspects of history to help people that are interested in getting an article written for very cheap.
The war between the domains of Sparta and Athens are well known. After a 30 year piece following the initial Peloponnesian War, Athens, an Empire at the height of its culture, size and moral, allied with Corcyra, an important land for Sparta. This “act of aggression” eventually triggered the war, where the two greatest empires of Ancient Greece collided in many episodes of brutal combat.
Eventually, the sun set on the Roman Empire in 476 AD when Odoacer entered Rome and deposed Romulus Augustus, the last Latin Emperor. Reasons for why Rome fell are still being debated today – but here are the most important factors for its dissolution.
Also, the Emperor was particularly interested in architecture, which probably inspired his organised design of the wall. Other walls built during the slow decline of the Roman Empire didn’t match to Hadrian’s Wall.
Bonfire night is celebrated by communities all over the UK, but only recently has there been a growth in popularity for a new conspiracy theory about the plot. In today’s blog post, we look at the 400 year old tale and examine “gunpowder, treason and plot”.
Here is a list of frequently asked questions about all topics of history – I’m going to try and answer them in the best way. Please keep in mind some answers may be written with my personal opinion, but it will still be facts.
These are some pictures I took whilst looking around the Royal Albert Memorial Museum. The exhibitions are actually surprisingly large; there are lots of historical artifacts to blow your mind, as well as an Ancient Egyptian mummy. Hopefully you like the photos I took 🙂
17th Century Civil War armour, used by the soldiers defending Exeter castle.
This is a documentation of my personal research on Caesar’s invasions, Claudius’ conquest and the romanization of England starting from 55 BC, but it will also serve as a general topic article about England, Wales (and part of Scotland) in the Ancient times. I hope my learning helps you in some way.
The man who created the foundation for France’s law and civil code, controlled huge swathes of Europe, rose through the ranks and crowned himself Emperor of France and eventually became the name for his period … Napoleon Bonaparte, the greatest and most ambitious nation leader of the 19th century.
Carthage – the crucial Mediterranean trading city in Tunisia – has, for a short period of time, had peace with its Roman enemies. However, this is only a playful grace period, as neither side intends to continue this truce. Hannibal, the greatest warrior in all of Europe, is no exception. Vowing to never forgive the Romans for their awful treatment of Carthage and astonishingly unfair terms of surrender, he fumes his way into the Second Punic War, conducting the greatest North African army in history so far and eventually causing the most terrible military failure Rome has ever suffered.
Any blunder in war, big or small, is bound to fine tune our perception of fighting forever, but it is the greatest upsets in military history that truly turn the world in an entirely new direction. Furious encounters like the Battle of Stalingrad and nation-changing conflicts such as the Battle of Hastings will be remembered in the books for years to come.
As we draw every closer to Christmas, Bonfire Night and the anniversary of Armistice Day, you’ll be seeing a lot more awesome articles from me about a range of interesting topics that I’m sure will make you stop and read.
This is because the first English explorers started establishing colonies on the East coast in the early 17th century, and we don’t have many texts describing what they sounded like after a few decades of living on the new land. Nor do we have audio recordings, because we only started seeing them over two hundred years later. Therefore, there is quite a gap in our knowledge of how America gained its lingual diversity.
Allied forces suffered over 300,000 casualties in the Third Battle of Ypres, and the utterly ruined medieval village of Passchendaele overlooking this ridge and Ypres salient was acquired. However, was it really the start of the “big push” Haig was looking for or was it, in the words of General Currie, “not worth a drop of blood”? Continue reading “Did The Battle Of Passchendaele Achieve Anything?”→
No matter how terrifying or dangerous the trenches were, they were by no means worse than the so-called “No Man’s Land”. Full of crater holes and constantly surveyed by countless machine guns, snipers and artillery units, it became one of the most difficult battlegrounds to get across.
I think that to understand and answer this question you must first consider what things Nero did or is believed to have done that gave him this reputation. After all, everyone wants to think an Emperor was evil or had greedy intentions – that’s just people wanting something dramatic.
This year, I went on holiday to France, and saw the sights. As well as visiting the Bayeux Tapesty and Notre Dame, we had the opportunity to explore the wildly historic beaches of Northern France, where Canada, America and England launched their successful comeback to the Nazi domination of France with Operation Neptune, the start of a campaign to reclaim land in that region called Operation Overlord.
The Battle of Arras, starting on the 9th of April in 1917, was one part of a British assisted offensive doubled with the French in two directions to the North of Imperial Germany. Designed as a distraction to Triple Alliance troops, it required great precision to coordinate troops from all different nationalities, such as Canada and New Zealand. These troops would push in across the temporary front.
Much confusion surrounds the organisation of the Roman Army and in my opinion that is mainly down to the fact that it is so advanced and there are so many roles to play on the battlefield, and while on the march. Not to mention that the army would have undoubtedly evolved over time, relative to the advance of the Roman domain and the periods of time when Rome was a monarchy, republic and empire. But I think we can all agree that there is one trait that the soldiers of the city possessed for a considerably long stretch of time – and that is their fiercesomeness and discipline.
The most commonly known theory/myth the existence and founding of Ancient Rome holds that it was created by two children named Romulus and Remus who had the intention of building a new Troy – the plan of remaking the most glorious city in all of the known world.
After the Black Death utterly wrecked the country, destroying somewhere from 1/3 to 1/2 of the population, medieval life in England would never be the same again. Society had been torn about in two ways – life and death. The suffered losses meant that work force had dropped considerably, leaving less peasants to work the land. Although the dreadful disease crippled all walks of people, there was an advantage for the survivors; more power had been placed into their hands.
Poll taxes were levied so that the Royal Treasury wouldn’t run out