I haven’t done of these summaries in a long time, so I decided I would read over chapter 7 again and write down a brief overview of the happenings so far. Hopefully this helps you in some way.Continue reading “Titus Livius’ History of Rome Summary [Bk1Ch7]”
THE AH-64 APACHE, ITS VARIANTS AND FUNCTIONS
Despite existing for a seemingly-interminable four decades since its birth, the AH-64 Apache remains the flagship helicopter of the United States military and continues in active service in Egypt, Japan, the UK, Saudi Arabia and countless more countries around the globe. Designed both to support ground operations and launch intensive attacks in the air itself, the Apache series is crucial for Boeing’s supply and logistical contract with America and AH-64s are the favored combat chopper of choice. Many countries around the world use Apache variants as their main form of aerial attack aircraft.
The British Army, to state one example, are provided with the AugustaWestland Apache – a unique, modified version of the AH-64D Longbow which features two T700-GE-701C engines, allowing it to reach speeds of up to 180mph. Additionally, British Apaches have been powered by Rolls-Royce Turbomeca engines – still recommendable alternatives.
In 1967, the Lockheed AH-56 Cheyenne, prototyped and designed in response to the threat of heavily-armed Soviet vehicles in Europe, was test-flown. The Cheyenne was a powerful and worthy helicopter, but it still couldn’t meet the needs of the army. Ultimately, it was abandoned in favor of something quicker and more agile and sleek. This would allow them considerably more conflict and logistical flexibility, which was extremely important for their missions in the late 20th century. The United States Army wanted an “Advanced Attack Helicopter” – a chopper to carry the same, primary role as a Tactical Attack Aircraft – which would prove to be rigorous in tough, intensive combat situations and support ground operations by simultaneously utilizing advanced tracking and pilot-sighting systems.
Hence, America initiated their AAH program in 1972 by calling for proposals to suggest a new helicopter model; this request received great interest from numerous notable manufacturers, including Bell, Lockheed and Hughes. One design, the Model 77 (YAH-64A), submitted by Hughes Helicopters, made its first flight on the 30th of September 1975. Overwhelmed by a considerably large number of responses to their initial demand, the USA was unable to provide a response until the next year; this coincided with the death of Howard Hughes – the founder of Hughes Helicopters – in 1976, who left no will. Understandably, the company was sent into a bitter dispute over who should take over leadership of planning and manufacturing. Despite this, Hughes was chosen as the winner for the AAH design contest as the army preferred the YAH-64A instead of its Bell counterpart, mainly because of the advantages of the YAH-64’s landing gear arrangement over the Bell organization.
A development contract was formed in 1976 and the AmericanArmy finally approved all plans in 1982. The plains of Mesa, Arizona have oftenbeen considered an excellent place to produce and test helicopters. Thus, thefirst Army AH-64 rolled out of Hughes’ facility and made a flight in 1983,being named “Apache”. Military helicopters in the USA were frequently given thenames of Native American tribes because Indians had served honorably in thearmy during American history. Securing a $470 million deal with McDonnellDouglas in 1984, the AH-64 Apache was brought into full-scale development andbecame a primary feature of the production line. McDonnell Douglas were in turnbought out by Boeing, who laid claim to the Apache series and remain the mainmanufacture of AH-64s today.
Powered by theT700 twin turbo-shaft engine – supplied by the General Electric and Pratt &Whitney partnership – Apache variations were able to output up to (and over)2,000 shaft horsepower, with the T6A Model accelerating to a staggering 2,768SHP. T700 turbo-shafts were able to continue operating in extremely intense andstressful situations, making it a revered and ideal solution for a combatengine. After being delivered to at least fifty nations, the T700 has poweredaeroplanes and helicopters for 40 years. Most notably, it supplies a modifiedBlack Hawk UH-60 known as the “Firehawk” with its admired and awe-strikingspeed. Despite the immense speed of the AH-64, it is still highly agile and canmake beautiful, quick and sloping turns to conduct a follow up strike of itstarget. Not only this, but its navigational systems allow it to find theoperation location with complete ease and return to base, hassle-free.
Weighing between 400 and 500 pounds, the AH-64 Apache has a tandem cockpit for two; the copilot gunner being situated at the front with the pilot controlling the aircraft from the rear. Due to the limited crew-size, the loss of one chopper does not matter as much in terms of casualty/death rate as a larger, highly-manned craft. It also sports a set of excellent laser-targeting and night-vision systems mounted on the nose of the helicopter. These sensors and equipment allow the AH-64 Apache to continue operating at both night and day and it can withstand countless weather situations. Highly armored and easily maneuverable, the USA’s “most loved chopper” can fight through heavy enemy fire striking critical points on its body and return shots using a 30mm M230 chain gun hung beneath the fuselage, between the landing gears. Additionally, the AH-64D can carry approximately 22,000 pounds at maximum-load. All these upgrades and functionality features make the AH-64 and its counterparts extremely dangerous and effective weapons – one of the reasons they are loved so much. Although other helicopter models may be chosen over the Hughes’ design for certain circumstances and operations, the Apache is the ultimate multi-purpose (helicopter) aircraft, which is able to efficiently track and take out targets. ultimate multi-purpose (helicopter) aircraft, which is able to efficiently track and take out targets.
During Desert Storm – the primary operation of the Gulf War – the Apache was used as the main constituent for the air attack force body, with the purpose of shattering enemy radar positions, tanks and armored posts. Boeing remains in a position of contract with the United States and continues to deliver Apaches to armies across the globe. Until a manufacturer designs a new helicopter or weapon to one-up the AH-64, the Apache series will remain the most formidable, tactical air helicopter in the world and will forever be loved by aircraft enthusiasts, mechanists and engineers.
It seems apparent that the Ancient Greeks were very fond of the number twelve. Upon multiple occassions, primarily during myths and religious tales, the number twelve has been used in relation to gods, animals, etc. The Twelve Olympians were the most important deities of Greek religion and owned their name because they lived – supposedly – at the summit of Mount Olympus. As the greatest gods and godesses of the Greek Pantheon – religious circle – they were the ancestors of all other immortals and the overseers of humans.Continue reading “The Twelve Olympians”
It’s my birthday today, and I realised it would be a great time to write another episode of “Reviewing History Products”. Shoutout to James at History Gear for sending these amazing products to The Augustus to review!
From 1803 to 1815, Napoleon Bonaparte, known also as “Little Boney” conducted his Imperial wars in Europe, hugely expanding French territory and humiliatingly defeating his enemies. Two hundred years later, we still remember him as a rampaging little kid, who couldn’t back down after being exiled to the island of Elba.
Maces, or as they were otherwise known, bludgeons, became extremely popular in the Middle Ages in Eastern Europe, where the poorer soldiers could arm themselves cheaply with an easy-to-produce weapon with deadly potential.
It was necessary that Alexander and his army eliminate all Persian naval threats in the Aegean and Levant before continuing inland on their campaign. If the Persian leaders realised that Greece was only defended by 13,000 men, there would be a large risk of invasion. Tyre, on the Levantine coast, was expertly defended, well garrisoned and almost impregnable. Additionally, it was a crucial trading port of the Mediterranean and controlled access to India, Carthage, Rome and other great nations across the sea. Alexander, of course, did not want to lead his army into this military headache, but the capture of Tyre was paramount and necessary to the continuation of the invasion.
With Memnon of Rhodes’ forces destroyed at the first major battle of the Persian invasion by the Macedonians, Alexander led his blood-thirsty army – which had little need for any recovery time – along Anatolia’s Aegean Coast, bribing, frightening and besieging the ports into submission. Consequently, he had diminished Persian naval dominance around the Greek homelands, but had not gained full control of the Eastern Mediterranean.
In the fifth chapter of Livy’s work, we see Romulus escape capture, Remus taken for punishment to the King, and the assassination of the treacherous usurper Amulius. Here is my brief summary of chapter 5 of the first books – enjoy 🙂
- Romulus and Remus were celebrating the festival of Lupercalia – founded by Evander, an Arcadian who had previously occupied the area – on the Palatine hill
- Remember the brothers were fighting and stealing? Well, the brigands came to take revenge and managed to capture Remus. Romulus is not caught.
- Remus had been raiding his grandfather, Numitor’s lands, and had not realised who he was attacking as he had never grown to know his exiled grandfather.
- Fastaulus, the farmer that had found the boys with the wolf and cared for them through their childhood, knew that the boys were of royal blood
- So Fastaulus told Romulus that he was descended from royalty
- At about the same time, Numitor realised that the one boy he had in custody and his brother (Romulus) were his long-lost grandsons
- Rom and Reme didn’t stand a chance in a pitched battle against Amulius, so they grouped their soldiers…
- …and built a trap…
I hope this helped you! Oh, and Merry Christmas. Not sure why I am doing this on Christmas Day, but oh well.
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In the oldest, darkest of Ancient Times, there existed a period of great celebration stretching from around late December to the first days of January, known to the pagans and druids of the cold and icy North.